Here's an article I came across.
Outsourcing Vaccine Supply Chain and Logistics to the Private Sectors
Contrary to what VFC program chose to do, which is to outsource the whole supply chain to a third party, there are 2 other models regarding vaccine supply chain outsourcing:
1. To outsource one or more functions (procurement, arrival and importation, cross-docking, storage, or transport) of the vaccine supply chain
2. To sign lease contract (mostly short-term) with a third party regarding equipment (vehicles, or cold-room space), maintenance of equipments, or fuel resupply
Instead of outsourcing the whole vaccine supply chain, government of South Africa outsourced its procurement, storage and distribution to meet its urgent need to upgrade cold chain system while there was no budget available to upgrade the provincial-run vaccine store. Thai government, which faced challenges such as wasted or expired vaccines and inventory control issues, took the initiative to outsource their vaccine supply chain through a vendor-managed inventory system. Their way of implementing the new supply chain model, however, is similar to what is done in the US: start in some cities, and expand it to nationwide, which is a smart way to carry out gargantuan changes on a national scale. The efficiency of those outsourcing initiatives can be illustrated by figures below: